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The Propeller.

Breaking News Posted on Mon, May 25, 2015 12:11:42


The understanding and definition of Propeller.

I would like to start with the definition of the word Propeller to which in the world of Hoverpod® is something that is often misused. I have hear the driving force of the Hoverpod® called a Fan, Turbine and many other terms but in truth it is a propulsion system and to that end defines it as a Propeller.
The definition and description of the propeller as well as this history of the propeller has a varied and interesting history and some of which is defined below:

The twisted airfoil (aerofoil) shape of an aircraft propeller was pioneered by the Wright brothers. While some earlier engineers had attempted to model air propellers on marine propellers, the Wrights realized that a propeller is essentially the same as a wing, and were able to use data from their earlier wind tunnel experiments on wings. The Wrights introduced a twist along the length of the blades. This was necessary to maintain a more uniform angle of attack of the blade along its length. Their original propeller blades had an efficiency of about 82%, compared to the 90% of modern propellers.

Mahogany was the wood preferred for propellers through World War I, but wartime shortages encouraged use of walnut, oak, cherry and ash.
Alberto Santos Dumont was another early pioneer, having designed propellers before the Wright Brothers (albeit not as efficient) for his airships. He applied the knowledge he gained from experiences with airships to make a propeller with a steel shaft and aluminum blades for his 14 bis biplane. Some of his designs used a bent aluminum sheet for blades, thus creating an airfoil shape. They were heavily under-cambered, and this plus the absence of lengthwise twist made them less efficient than the Wright propellers. Even so, this was perhaps the first use of aluminum in the construction of an air screw.

Originally, a rotating airfoil behind the aircraft, which pushes it, was called a propeller, while one which pulled from the front was a tractor. Later the term ‘pusher’ became adopted for the rear-mounted device in contrast to the tractor configuration and both became referred to as ‘propellers’ or ‘air-screws’.
The understanding of low speed propeller aerodynamics was fairly complete by the 1920s, but later requirements to handle more power in a smaller diameter have made the problem more complex.
A well-designed propeller typically has an efficiency of around 80% when operating in the best regime. The efficiency of the propeller is influenced by the angle of attack (α). This is defined as α = Φ – θ, where θ is the helix angle (the angle between the resultant relative velocity and the blade rotation direction) and Φ is the blade pitch angle. Very small pitch and helix angles give a good performance against resistance but provide little thrust, while larger angles have the opposite effect. The best helix angle is when the blade is acting as a wing producing much more lift than drag. Angle of attack is similar to advance ratio, for propellers.

A propeller’s efficiency is determined by

Propellers are similar in aerofoil section to a low-drag wing and as such are poor in operation when at other than their optimum angle of attack. Therefore some propellers use a variable pitch mechanism to alter the blades’ pitch angle as engine speed and aircraft velocity are changed.

The three-bladed propeller of a light aircraft: the Vans RV-7A
A further consideration is the number and the shape of the blades used. Increasing the aspect ratio of the blades reduces drag but the amount of thrust produced depends on blade area, so using high-aspect blades can result in an excessive propeller diameter.

A further balance is that using a smaller number of blades reduces interference effects between the blades, but to have sufficient blade area to transmit the available power within a set diameter means a compromise is needed. Increasing the number of blades also decreases the amount of work each blade is required to perform, limiting the local Mach number – a significant performance limit on propellers.
A propeller’s performance suffers as the blade speed nears the transonic.

As the relative air speed at any section of a propeller is a vector sum of the aircraft speed and the tangential speed due to rotation, a propeller blade tip will reach transonic speed well before the aircraft does. When the airflow over the tip of the blade reaches its critical speed, drag and torque resistance increase rapidly and shock waves form creating a sharp increase in noise. Aircraft with conventional propellers, therefore, do not usually fly faster than Mach 0.6.

There have been propeller aircraft which attained up to the Mach 0.8 range, but the low propeller efficiency at this speed makes such applications rare.
There have been efforts to develop propellers for aircraft at high subsonic speeds. The ‘fix’ is similar to that of transonic wing design. The maximum relative velocity is kept as low as possible by careful control of pitch to allow the blades to have large helix angles; thin blade sections are used and the blades are swept back in a scimitar shape (Scimitar propeller); a large number of blades are used to reduce work per blade and so circulation strength; contra-rotation is used.

The propellers designed are more efficient than turbo-fans and their cruising speed (Mach 0.7–0.85) is suitable for airliners, but the noise generated is tremendous (see the Antonov An-70 and Tupolev Tu-95 for examples of such a design).
Since the 1940s, propellers and prop fans with swept tips or curved “scimitar-shaped” blades have been studied for use in high-speed applications so as to delay the onset of shock waves, in similar manner to wing sweep back, where the blade tips approach the speed of sound. The Airbus A400M turboprop transport aircraft is expected to provide the first production example: note that it is not a prop fan because the propellers are not mounted directly to the engine shaft but are driven through reduction gearing.

Variable Pitch

The purpose of varying pitch angle with a variable-pitch propeller is to maintain an optimal angle of attack (maximum lift to drag ratio) on the propeller blades as aircraft speed varies. Early pitch control settings were pilot operated, either two-position or manually variable. Following World War I, automatic propellers were developed to maintain an optimum angle of attack. This was done by balancing the centripetal twisting moment on the blades and a set of counterweights against a spring and the aerodynamic forces on the blade.

Automatic props had the advantage of being simple, lightweight, and requiring no external control, but a particular propeller’s performance was difficult to match with that of the aircraft’s power-plant. An improvement on the automatic type was the constant-speed propeller. Constant-speed propellers allow the pilot to select a rotational speed for maximum engine power or maximum efficiency, and a propeller governor acts as a closed-loop controller to vary propeller pitch angle as required to maintain the selected engine speed. In most aircraft this system is hydraulic, with engine oil serving as the hydraulic fluid. However, electrically controlled propellers were developed during World War II and saw extensive use on military aircraft, and have recently seen a revival in use on home built aircraft.

On some variable-pitch propellers, the blades can be rotated parallel to the airflow to reduce drag in case of an engine failure. This uses the term feathering, borrowed from rowing. On single-engined aircraft, whether a powered glider or turbine-powered aircraft, the effect is to increase the gliding distance.

On a mufti-engine aircraft, feathering the propeller on a failed engine helps the aircraft to maintain altitude with the reduced power from the remaining engines.
Most feathering systems for reciprocating engines sense a drop in oil pressure and move the blades toward the feather position, and require the pilot to pull the propeller control back to disengage the high-pitch stop pins before the engine reaches idle RPM. Turboprop control systems usually utilize a negative torque sensor in the reduction gearbox which moves the blades toward feather when the engine is no longer providing power to the propeller. Depending on design, the pilot may have to push a button to override the high-pitch stops and complete the feathering process, or the feathering process may be totally automatic.

Reverse Pitch

In some aircraft, such as the C-130 Hercules, the pilot can manually override the constant-speed mechanism to reverse the blade pitch angle, and thus the thrust of the engine (although the rotation of the engine itself does not reverse). This is used to help slow the plane down after landing in order to save wear on the brakes and tires, but in some cases also allows the aircraft to back up on its own – this is particularly useful for getting float planes out of confined docks. See also Thrust reversal.


#peterhulbert #F1hoverpod #F1hoverpodracing

F1 Hoverpod

Breaking News Posted on Tue, April 03, 2012 09:42:55

Latest News from F1 Hoverpod Ltd

The news from the front line in respect of F1 Hoverpod Ltd is in many ways a
continuation of the business and team going from strength to strength in a very
positive way, all of this on the back of the huge victory at the early part of
the year in regards to the damming comments posted on the internet to which the
truth came out in the end. Whilst the truth was what was sought from the team,
the removal of such content was something to which all three of the major
search engines were so sympathetic in assisting in the removal from the
internet under the instruction and guidance of the independent body “Chilling Effects” who are a body of
experts from the legal world who assess the content and all of the trace
elements of where and who posted said information and base the final outcome/decision
upon the reality and not the gossip. The outcome was that F1 Hoverpod was totally exonerated
of any wrong doing and now the task of damages action starts in regards to the
party or parties whom posted such content.

Now, March has seen much progress within the team of F1 Hoverpod Ltd with the corporate
structure and board changes amongst some of the developments within the group
of companies, a very welcome and pleasant surprise arrived in early March with
an invite from a very prestigious Institution to present a lecture to the academics
about the pathway and developments of F1
and its junior company F1
Hoverpod Racing
to which have attracted so much interest from around the
globe, most recently to which the gossip columns have confirmed has come from
the Middle East and Asia. What I can confirm today is that progress and discussions
is an ongoing situation and all in a positive manor, so for now I can say the
signs are truly encouraging at this early stage.

As most of you who follow us on Facebook now by now, there
has been a tour of Europe with some of the key members of the team in order to
draw attention to the business and encourage the interest from within those
countries to throw its support for the business into the arena and once again
the news from the front line is that this trip has been a huge success, a further
trip to Switzerland and Central Europe is potentially in the offering and I
will confirm this as and when the timing has been confirmed.

and F1
Hoverpod Racing
have now connected with Google + to create two new sites in
which you can track the daily routine and developments, you are also able to
leave your comments and even your pictures etc if you wish and I can confirm
the whole team enjoy most of the comments and humour and I’m sure will
appreciate your pictures or holiday snaps if you wish. Spring has arrived and
we anticipate more progress and postings in the coming weeks so keep tuned in
and be the first to hear the news from F1 Hoverpod Ltd as it happens.

Team manager smiley

Latest News

Breaking News Posted on Wed, January 25, 2012 20:15:00

Ref: Ripoff Report.

This is an official response to the negative posting placed on the internet several years ago under the title Ripoff Report to which was designed with the sole purpose of creating maximum damage to any person or business mentioned on said report.

The comments posted on Ripoff Report with the title F1 Hoverpod Ltd or F1 Hoverpod Racing in the comments was under investigation by the leading search engines Bing, Yahoo and Google to which after conducting there own investigation and viewing the evidence provided by ourselves to support the process of investigation, it was finally deemed that the comments were 100% false and posted by two parties with the only conclusion being that one was a competitor (we all know what the Reaction to that will be) and the other posting was by an ex employee to which F1 Hoverpod Ltd cooperated with the UK Government in the investigation into his Tax evasion and false Benefits claims in the UK.

I am now pleased to say that “All The Major Search Engines” have removed Rip off Report from their sites and complied fully with the Law of the Land in the countries to which F1 Hoverpod Ltd requested the false and libel comments that were displayed, be removed.

I would now wish to formally thank the whole team at Bing, Yahoo & Google for the kind, sensitive and very professional way in wich they all dealt with this issue and thank the people out there who sent letters and e-mails of support to ourselves throughout this whole dark period but lifted our spirits with such kind words of support.

This now draws a closeure to the issue for the team at F1 Hoverpod Ltd and only leaves it to the lawyers in this instance to make a meal of what is to come with the guilty parties involved who will shortly be persued by the Lawyers and there Investigation Teams.

Team Manager

Wow…..Look What’s New @ You Know Who !!!

Breaking News Posted on Wed, January 11, 2012 13:26:24

Welcome back to the developments taking place here at F1 Hoverpod Ltd. Firstly though and
perhaps a little late “A Happy New Year” to you all and how good it is to see
you all reading the blogs again and in some cases sending through your comments
and views, they are all seen and we truly appreciate the interest.

You may remember toward the later part of last year I hinted
that some all new appointments to the Board at F1 Hoverpod Ltd were under negotiation
and all being well would be taking place in the early part of the new year !. I
can now confirm that a new member of the Board has committed to the team and as
I write this blog, is being appointed to the Board of F1 Hoverpod Ltd to help oversee
the running and daily duties involved in the management of such a company and
with a long history of CEO with one of Hong Kong’s largest companies, it is a
real bonus to welcome a new member with such a proven background. Our new
member is qualified in Law and Business Accounts and has actively been involved
within the International Banking & Business Finance for some 25 years and
as one might say, “All of these qualities
may be required in the same day
” when fully settled in at F1 Hoverpod Ltd.

I will be reporting to you shortly of a new appointee here
at F1 Hoverpod Ltd who has been
head hunted from the Banking World and based in Europe but for now I have to
remain tight lipped until confirmed ok to report…………….”stay tuned as
you will be the first to know”.

Team Manager smiley

News @ F1 Hoverpod Ltd

Breaking News Posted on Thu, December 29, 2011 13:08:25

The New Year is almost upon us and whilst the team at F1 Hoverpod® Ltd are all on a well earned
break for the festive period, this does not mean that the business is closed
but simply that we are running with a minimal staff through the Christmas
period. Meetings and agendas are still taking place with members of the board
and some announcements for the new year will be posted shortly on the news site and various blogs.


There are negotiations under way regarding the appointment
of new members onto the Board at F1 Hoverpod®
and I’m sure an announcement will be forthcoming in due course with
postings on the news site and blogs. I can also confirm that some very exciting
news is emerging with regards to renewed interest from overseas shown toward F1 Hoverpod® Racing, so once again
I would urge you to keep a close watch over the blogs and news sites for an
update in the early part of the new year.


So for now it simply leaves me to say a Happy New Year to you all from everyone involved in F1 Hoverpod Ltd and it’s group members.

Team Manager smiley

News up date from F1 Hoverpod Racing

Breaking News Posted on Fri, March 25, 2011 15:17:38

Spring 2011

Summer has finally arrived in the UK and for all those in
Europe and in part most of the world “The Clocks Go Forward One Hour This
Weekend”. There is always the few exceptions to whom follow the rest of us
in a couple of days. All that this means is a symbol to the Northern Hemisphere
that at long last summer is on its way after the long hard winter and this
always provides for a good feeling inside. The opposite to this is that its
tough luck you for you guys in the Southern Hemisphere where the winter days
will soon be upon you and the nights draw in and the days simply become
shorter. For those on the border between North and South or in the middle
somewhere, I suppose it’s quite a bit more boring but with the knowing that its
business as usual. Anyway, What this means for the team at F1 Hoverpod Racing, all it means is
that the long sunny days are here and the main reason to find excuses for
progress has just diminished.

The comments posted on the blogs in the “Leave a
comment” section and often found in the inbox on our e-mail keeps
reminding us that we really do have so many interested parties and supporters
out there that clearly have an keen interest in the technology and sometimes
the questions are far more in-depth and complex than the answer and it’s not
always that easy to admit it, sometimes the questions are so complicated that
we have to refer them to our technical department (Brains) for the full and
very often complicated answer. “Is this an admission that I’m not that
smart, I hope not”.

The problems and questions that are normally offered are
usually based around the 21st century topic of reduction in Emissions and how
it can be achieved ?. The often simple truth is that we have managed to adapt
what is in reality a quite old and often overlooked technology but put through
a very rigorous modification process in order that the combustion of fuel is at
a greater temperature and the result is that 80% of the pollutants are simple
burned away in the process. There are many benefits of doing this under
controlled conditions and one of these is that the engine carbon deposits and
often harmful pollutants deposits are drastically reduced which provides a more
fuel efficient power plant with fewer service intervals and requirements due to
the reduction and build up of soot.

The area of attention to which F1 Hoverpod Manufacture will be
researching and focussing its efforts toward developing in the near future will
be the silencer and emission extractor system where all the emphasis will be
upon the reduction in sound and the recycling of waste gasses. There is a real
potential to increase the power even further with the use of re-cycling excess

I hope this now provides a satisfactory answer to the
questions posed and to which the petrol heads have sent over in such numbers. It
must be appreciated that the full and exact process is something to which is
Top Secret and I am not permitted to discuss as this is a confidential piece of
technology but the result is what you required clarification upon and to that
end the result is as always a “Win Win” for the public who purchase
or have access to a Hoverpod.

Team Manager smiley

Up date from F1 Hoverpod Racing

Breaking News Posted on Mon, March 21, 2011 09:57:53

March 21st 2011

Today I am permitted to share some announcements regarding
engine technology and the partners involved in the systems used. Let’s start
this blog with the exciting news that I have been officially approved to share
with you all. Toxic emissions are down and useable power up. The extensive
testing and in-depth research to which has been conducted and demanded over a 12
month period within Europe has used some brand new technology that has been
specifically designed to improve and increase the power output on the “Manx GT”
which will be provided with a 85bhp twin cylinder engine that is very efficient
and capable of reducing emissions by up to 80% over conventional four stroke
engines. This has a major feature of reduced service intervals due to lack of
carbon build up and more efficient fuel chamber and combustion burning process
. This is a world first and for Hovercraft
is a 100% unique feature that is exclusive to the Hoverpod and as we have been
saying for a while, “Rome was not built in a day” and patience and
persistence will always provide a positive result in the end. In F1 Hoverpod Racing’s case, it’s
provided a World Beating Result to which when launched will take the Hoverpod
into a different league. smiley

At this point, I need to share with you a few words about
our technology partners. The first of
these is a world beating engine manufacturer and power plant technology centre
that provided a platform of testing and “Grade A” research teams that
is in a class of its own. The fuel system has undergone extensive development
and testing, once again this was within Europe and the UK in order to develop
an engine management software system that provides the maximum benefits in
order to create the perfect solution for balance and power. The fuel efficiency
combined with the power provided by the engine technology brings together a
perfect harmony of instant response and super efficient emission reduction. “Once
again, this is a world first for F1

The fuel storage tank and refuelling system has been
developed by a co-operating between a the World’s Number One within this key
area who specialise in this light weight materials design who’s development
team is based in Norway. This Partnership and collaboration had a working
budget of over $5m in order to produce this unique system and F1 Hoverpod Ltd will be the very first
vehicle in the world to use this system on a production vehicle. The result of
this combination in which the customer is the beneficiary is a super light and
very versatile craft that has class beating power ratios and a world beating
emission reduction. “Wow”.

It only leaves the team at F1 Hoverpod Manufacture Ltd with
one a single thing left to do and for us to do and is the most important one of
all. It is a humble message to all the development centres involved for all of
their hard work and commitment to the project and a Huge Thank You to you all
from all the whole team at F1
Hoverpod Racing

Team Manager smiley

F1 Hoverpod Racing News

Breaking News Posted on Fri, February 25, 2011 15:53:12

February 2011

The world has become a very strange place to be in over the
last few months with many natural disasters ranging from Major Snow Storms in
the East of the USA through to Life Changing Floods in Australia, followed by
major political upheaval in several countries within the Middle East. Gosh, how
so many things have changed within such a short period of 2011 which brings me
nicely to the developments at F1
Hoverpod Ltd
who have increased and strengthened its Management Team and developed some new systems
such as logistics and manufacture partner relationships. I’m not permitted to
say too much on this subject just now but be prepared for some major
announcements over the coming months.

Over the Winter Months with the group of companies there has
been lots of movement in relation to technical advancement and testing with the
F1 Hoverpod Manufacture Team
and the advantage of the adverse weather gave the team a good reason to test
indoors despite the ability to take snow, ice or most weather conditions in its

The Eagle Eyed Blog Readers will have noted that we have
teamed up with several editorial and publishing
companies as well as some interesting video
showing how helpful a Hovercraft can be when permitted to
demonstrate it’s ability.

Our Corporate WordPress
appears to be the place where most readers leave their comments and
supporting words but I can confirm we have many others and they are all full of
interesting items for you to read.

We do have some major news
just around the corner and I hope to be able to share this with you very soon
and you can still follow us on Facebook and Twitter as many of you already
have done and the corporate My
is there for those who enjoy sharing information In the meantime,
thank you all for your support and keep the views and comments coming through.

Team Manager

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